### Table of Contents

# Functors overview

Chapter on functors in full tectogrammatical manual.

Functors represent the semantic values of syntactic dependency relations; they express the functions of individual modifications in the sentence.

## Root functors

The functor PRED (predication) is a functor for the effective root of an independent verbal clause, which is not a parenthesis.

The functor VOCAT is a functor for the effective root of an independent vocative clause.

## Argument functors

ACT (Actor) is a functor used primarily for the first argument. In those cases when there is no argument shifting, the modification with the ACT functor refers to the human or non-human originator of the event, the bearer of the event or a quality/property, the experiencer or possessor.

The PAT functor (Patient) is a functor used primarily for the second argument. In those cases when there is no argument shifting, the modification with the PAT functor refers to the affected object (in the broad sense of the word).

EFF (Effect) is a functor used for arguments referring to the result of the event. In those cases when the argument shifting applies, a modification is assigned the EFF functor if the verb (noun, adjective) has at least three arguments.

ADDR (Addressee) is a functor used for arguments with the cognitive role of the Addressee of the event . In those cases when the argument shifting applies, a modification is assigned the ADDR functor if the verb (noun, adjective) has at least three arguments.

ORIG (Origo)is a functor used for arguments with the cognitive role of the origin/source of the event. In those cases when the argument shifting applies, the ORIG functor is assigned to a modification if the verb (noun, adjective) has at least three arguments.

## temporal relations

The TWHEN functor (temporal : when) is a functor for a free modification that expresses time answering the question “when?”.

The TFHL functor (temporal: for how long) is a functor for a free modification that expresses a temporal meaning related to the question “for how long?”; it gives the length of duration of a state which is a result of the event expressed by the governing word.

The TFRWH functor (temporal: from when) is a functor for a free modification with a temporal meaning corresponding to the question “from when?”.

The THL functor (temporal: how long) is a functor for such a a free modification that provides specification of time as if answering the question “how long?” (the length of the duration of the event expressed by the governing word), or “after how long?” (the interval within which the event comes to its end).

The THO functor (temporal: how often) is functor for a free modification that expresses specification of time answering the question “how often?”, or “how many times?”. It expresses the frequency of an event or state expressed by the governing word.

The TOWH functor (temporal: to when) is a functor for a free modification answering the question “to when?”.

The TPAR functor (temporal parallel, contemporaneous) is a functor for a free modification that expresses specification of time answering the question “during what time?”, or “simultaneously with what?”.

The TSIN functor (temporal: since when) is a functor for a free modification that expresses specification of time answering the question “since when?”.

The TTILL functor (temporal: till) is a functor for a (free) temporal modification answering the question “till when?”.

## Locative and directional functors

The DIR1 functor (directional: from) is a functor of a free modification that expresses specification of place (direction) answering the question “where from?”, i.e. it refers to the starting point (of the event denoted by the governing word).

The DIR2 functor (directional: which way) is a functor for a free modification that expresses specification of place (direction) answering the question “which way?”.

The DIR3 fnctor (directional: to) is a functor for a free modification that specifies the direction (it answers the question “where to?”), i.e. it expresses the target point of the event.

The LOC functor (locative) is a functor for a free modification that specifies the location answering the question “where?”, i.e. it indicates the place at which the event or state is situated.

## Functors for implicational (causal) relations

The AIM functor (aim) is a functor assigned to free modifications which express purpose, the intended result of the event (expressed by the of governing word), or the aim for which the entity expressed by governing word is intended.

The CAUS functor (cause) is assigned to modifications with the meaning of cause of an event or state expressed by the governing word (i.e. the cause proper) but also to modifications with the meaning of a reason/motive motivating certain behaviour.

The CNCS functor (concession) is assigned to free modifications expressing a cause (a concession) that is true but does not bring about the supposed consequential event or state, and at the same time an unexpected event expressed by the governig word takes place.

The COND functor (condition) is assigned to modifications that express a condition on which the event or state expressed by the governing word can happen.

The INTT functor (intent) is assigned to a free modification expressing intention, purpose, aim of movement (relocation) expressed by the governing verb.

## Functors for expressing manner and its specific variants

The ACMP functor (accompaniment) is a functor for such an adjunct which expresses manner by specifying a circumstance (an object, person, event) that accompanies (or fails to accompany) the event or entity modified by the adjunct.

CPR (comparison) is a functor used for adjuncts expressing manner by means of comparison. Modifications with the CPR functor refer to an entity or event to which the entity or event expressed by the governing word is compared to.

CRIT (criterion) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by providing a measure or criterion (norm, rule) essential for the measurement, evaluation, classification or recognizing the event (state) etc.

DIFF (difference) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying the difference in quantity or quality between the compared events, states or entities or between the initial and final state of the event.

EXT (extent) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying extent or intensity of the event or a circumstance.

MANN (manner) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying an evaluating charateristic of the event or a property.

MEANS (means) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying a means or instrument used for carrying out the event.

REG (regard) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying with respect to what something holds (is to be interpreted).

RESL (result) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying the result of the event. The meaning is “in such a way that then…” The RESL functor expresses that at the end of the event, the state referred to by the modification with the RESL functor is achieved.

RESTR (restriction) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying an exception/restriction.

## Functors for rhematizers, sentence, linking and modal adverbial expressions

The ATT functor (attitude) is a functor for such an atomic node that represents an expression of speaker's evaluating or emotional attitude to the utterance contents (or its part).

The INTF functor (intensification) is a functor for such an atomic node representing an expression that emphasizes particularly the modification in the subject position and that simultaneously intensifies the entire construction. The position of such an expression is parallel to the subject position (it represents the so-called “false subject”).

The MOD functor (modality) is a functor for such an atomic node that represents an expression of modality of the utterance contents (or its part). This modality can be described as necessity, possibility or probability.

The PREC functor (reference to preceding text) is a functor for such an atomic node that represents an expression linking the clause to the preceding context.

The RHEM functor (rhematizer) is a functor for such an atomic node that represents a rhematizer.

## Specific adnominal functors

The functor APP (appurtenance) is a functor for a free adnominal modification denoting a person or an object, to which the person or object referred to by the governing noun is in the relation of appurtenance.

The functor AUTH (author) is assigned to those free modifications of nouns that denote the author of an artefact.

The functor ID (identity) is used as a functor for the effective root of an identifying expression, which is represented as an identification structure.

The functor MAT (material, partitive) is a functor for an adnominal argument denoting the content (people, things, substance etc.) of a container expressed by the governing noun.

The functor RSTR is a functor for a free modification further specifying the governing noun. The RSTR functor is assigned to such adnominal modifications that neither meet the conditions for being considered adverbal modifications nor do they belong among other (more clearly defined) adnominal modifications.

## Predicative complement

The functor COMPL (complement) is a functor for predicative complements (i.e. optional adjuncts with a dual semantic relation).