# Sort Attribute

## Sort Specification and Examples

### abs (Abstraction from Situation)

Situational objects [abs] are divided into:

• Abstractions from dynamic situations [ad]. Examples:theft, integration, movement. etc.
• Abstractions from static situations [as]. Examples:calmness, equilibrium, awareness, sleep, etc.

### ent (Entity)

Entity [ent]: is the most general sort given to the class of conceptual entities.
Means for Expressing Classiﬁcation and Stratiﬁcation

### fe (Formal Entity)

Formal entities [fe]: represent extralingual objects (formulas, drawings, pictures, etc.), which play an important role in multimedia documents.
Examples:at the top of the diagram, the area in the top right corner, etc.

Graduators [gr]: Graduators are used for a more detailed speciﬁcation of properties and quantities and are divided into:

• Qualitative graduators [lg]: for more speciﬁc and graded descriptions of properties. Examples: very, a few, fairly, extremely, rather and quite.
• Quantitative graduators [ng]: are used (mostly) for “fuzzy” qualiﬁcation of quantities. Examples: almost, nearly, approximately, more than and less than.

### o (Object)

Objects [o]:
There are two types of objects: Concrete Objects [co] and Abstract Objects [ab]

Concrete Objects [co] can be divided into:

• Substances [s] are divisible but not countable. Examples:sand, water, bread.
• Discrete Objects [d] are countable but not divisible. Examples: table, John.

Abstract Objects [ab] are products of human reasoning and can further be divided into:

• Attributes [at] are further divided into operationable and non-operational:
• Operational Attributes [oa] are measurable and operationally deﬁnable Examples:height, weight, average etc.
• Non-operational Attributes [na]are non-measurable/operationally non-deﬁnable Examples:form, character, trait, etc.
• Relations [re]
• Ideal objects [io] Examples: religion, mercy, justice, criteria, etc.
• Abstract temporal objects [ta] Examples: Dark Ages, Christmas, holidays, etc.
• Modalities [mo] Examples: probability, necessity, intention, permission, etc.

### ql (Quality)

Qualities [ql] or speciﬁcations of properties can be best classiﬁed as follows: Properties in the narrower sense [p], Relational qualities [rq] and Functional qualities [fq]

Properties in the narrower sense [p] are semantically total qualities [tq] and gradable qualities [gq] which can be assigned to entities as a characteristic.

• Total Qualities [tq] are extensionally interpretable. Examples: circular, empty, dead, etc.
• Gradable Qualities [gq]: are properties (e.g. big, expensive, and fast) that can only be interpreted in relation to the class of entities determined by a corresponding conceptual object. “a large pig” for instance, means that the pig in question is larger than a typical pig and are further divided into:
• Measurable or quantiﬁable properties [mq]. Examples: high (cm), heavy (kg), etc.
• Non-measurable qualities [nq] cannot be measured but express a judgement or a validation. Examples:friendly, lazy, kind, etc.
• Relational Qualities [rq] establish relationships between entities and can only be assigned to pluralities with at least two elements. Examples: equivalent, inverse, similar, etc.
• Functional qualities [fq] obtain their full meaning only in connection with other entities. Combined with other entities, they form a conceptual unit and can be divided into:
• Associative qualities [aq] establish associations to other object. Examples:green, educational, etc.
• Operational qualities [oq] describe the position in a sequence or are operationally deﬁned. Example:on average, next, fifth, etc.

### qn (Quantity)

Quantities [qn]: Expresses the quantitative aspect of concepts, mainly numbers and measurements.

• Measurements [m]:Units of measurement. Examples:weight (kg), distance (m), etc.
• Units of measurement [me]:used with numbers/quantiﬁcators for the speciﬁcation of measurements. Examples:kg, mm, degrees C,
• Quantificators [qf] are then divided in to:
• non-numerical quantiﬁcators [nn]. Examples:all, less than a half, very little, etc.
• numerical quantiﬁcators [nu]. Examples:one, three, seven, etc.

### sd (Situation Descriptor)

Situations or states of affairs [sd] are divided into:

• Temporal Speciﬁcations [t] are moments or periods of time. Examples:yesterday evening, 3 o’clock, on Sundays, Xmas, 1966, on holidays, etc.
• Modalities [md] are concepts which express the position of the speaker or common (social) opinion with regard to a state of affairs or situations. Examples:probably, impossible, necessary, desirable etc.
• Local situational descriptors [l] are locations primarily connected to objects. Examples:on the building, under the chair, next to the door, etc.

### si (Situation)

Situations [si]: or states of affairs mirror the constellation of objects, their modes of being, or the changes they are undergoing. It is possible to distinguish between static situations [st] and dynamic situations [dy].

Static situations (states) [st]: physical states as well as psychic states, expressed by means of nouns. Examples: being pale with hunger, having a temperature of, having a serious illness. etc.

• Dynamic situations (events) [dy] are further classiﬁed into actions and happenings.
• Actions [da] Dynamic situations (events) actively carried out by an agent (the carrier of the action). Examples:eat, run, read, buy, etc.
• Happenings [dn] are caused but are not associated with an agent actively sustaining the event in question. Examples:sunshine, snow, grow, etc.