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user:ptacek:middle-voice [2006/04/04 10:19]
user:ptacek:middle-voice [2006/04/04 10:19] (current)
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 +==The middle voice==
  
 +Some languages (e. g. [[wp>​Sanskrit]] and Classical [[wp>​Greek language|Greek]]) have a '''​middle voice'''​. An intransitive verb that appears active but expresses a passive action characterizes the English middle voice. For example, in ''​The casserole cooked in the oven'',​ ''​cooked''​ is [[wp>​syntax|syntactically]] active but [[wp>​semantics|semantically]] passive, putting it in the middle voice. In Classical [[wp>​Greek language|Greek]],​ the middle voice is often reflexive, denoting that the subject acts on or for itself, such as "The boy washes himself."​ or "The boy washes." ​ It can be transitive or intransitive. ​ It can occasionally be used in a causative sense, such as "The father causes his son to be set free." or "The father ransoms his son."
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 +Many [[wp>​deponent verb]]s in [[wp>​Latin]] are also survivals of the [[wp>​Indo-European]] middle voice; many of these in turn survive as obligatory pseudo-[[reflexive verb]]s in the [[wp>​Romance language]]s such as [[wp>​French language|French]] and [[wp>​Spanish language|Spanish]].
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 +==Other grammatical voices==
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 +Some languages have even more grammatical voices. For example, in Classic Mongolian language there are five voices: active, passive, causative, reciprocal and cooperative.
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 +[[wp>​Ergative language]]s usually do not have a passive voice, since their syntactic structure does not agree with it; instead some have an [[wp>​antipassive voice]] that deletes the object of transitive verbs.

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